"A 'runner's high' describes a sense of well-being during endurance exercise characterized by euphoria and anxiolysis," Siebers et al. write in their April 2021 paper. Source: baranq/Shutterstock Key Points: Endocannabinoids are better candidates than endorphins to explain "runner's high." Running and other aerobic exercise stimulate the endocannabinoid system. Exercise-induced euphoria and post-workout anxiety reduction do not depend on endorphins binding to mu-opioid receptors. For decades, scientists have suspected that endocannabinoids (not endorphins) are the key to experiencing the exercise-induced euphoria and anxiety reduction we colloquially refer to as "runners high." In the mid-2000s, when I was writing The Athlete 's Way , my book's subtitle, " sweat and the biology of bliss ," was inspired by the newly discovered ( Spalding et al., 2003 ; Dietrich & McDaniel, 2004 ) phenomenon of aerobic exercise stimulating the production of an … [Read more...] about “Runner’s High” Depends on Endocannabinoids (Not Endorphins)
Human Karyotype showing three copies of chromosome 21 Source: Human Genome Project. Public domain. A recently released study finds that Europe has reduced the number of babies born with Down syndrome by 54%. In 2016, the same researchers found that the U.S. rate of Down syndrome births had declined by 33%. Some friends and colleagues have asked me whether such reductions, which entail prenatal diagnosis and elective pregnancy termination, mean that we are still practicing some form of eugenics. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder usually associated with an extra copy of chromosome 21 – hence its other name, trisomy 21. Children with Down syndrome generally exhibit growth delays, reduced intelligence , and a shortened life span of around 60 years. The risk of having a baby with Down syndrome increases with parental age. When prenatal testing reveals the diagnosis, some parents, including apparently many in Europe and the US, elect to terminate the pregnancy. The … [Read more...] about Is Reducing Down Syndrome Births a Form of Eugenics?
Key Points: As more vaccine formulations become available, it may be possible to allow patients to choose which vaccine they'd prefer. Research suggests that allowing vaccine choice could help bolster the immunization effort by increasing patient autonomy and engagement. However, constantly changing information about vaccines could confuse patients trying to make a decision, and logistical factors could force some clinics to limit choices. Policymakers should aim to frame the choice in a straightforward manner and focus on factors (side effects, effectiveness, etc) that consumers care about most. Imagine that you are on Yelp searching for a gutter cleaning service before winter rains arrive. In your query, you find two companies with dozens of customer reviews and nearly 5-star averages. There are a couple of others with just a handful of middling reviews and one carries the unfortunate tag “Gutters will be clean, sort of.” It looks like all will cost about the … [Read more...] about Should People Be Able to Choose Which Vaccine They Receive?