New reproductive technologies have yielded a vast array of novel variations on the two conventional twin types—identical and fraternal—as well as some curious twin-like sibships. When a Canadian mother of twins sent me her fascinating list, I thought about whether or not these different pairings truly qualified as twins. I have reprinted the different twinship categories I received with the explanations that she provided. My comments follow each one. • Traditional Multiples: more than one baby born in one womb, to one parent, during the same gestational period. Segal: I concur with this definition. • Surrogate Multiples: when siblings are born within 90 days* of each other using one or more surrogates. (*The longest recorded birth interval between twins is 87 days or nearly three months. The twins in question, Amy and Katie Jones-Elliot, are from Ireland and appear in the Guinness World Records. The Canadian mothers simply rounded up the 87-day interval to 90 days.) … [Read more...] about Are There More Than Two Types of Twins?
A Paramedic Helps Someone on the Street Source: RODNAE Productions/Pexels The recent spate of attacks on Asian Americans in cities around the United States has reinforced the popular belief that bystanders seldom intervene to help strangers, especially in densely populated urban areas. But is that belief correct? Bystanders Do Not Stand By American Psychologist found that, contrary to conventional wisdom , intervention is the norm in public conflicts. Research psychologist Richard Philpot at Lancaster University and his colleagues examined closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage of 219 public quarrels and attacks (Philpot et al., 2020). The incidents occurred on the street in the entertainment and central business districts of three cities: Amsterdam (the largest city in the Netherlands), Cape Town (the largest city in South Africa), and Lancaster (a smaller city in northwest England). Philpot and his team trained four research assistants to count the number of … [Read more...] about How Often Do Victims of Street Violence Receive Help?