The History of Western Philosophy endlessly reveals Five Primary Modes of Obtaining Valid Knowledge, indeed, what is "Valid." The latter ones are especially relevant to the problems we face. Indeed, they are the foundation for the modern field of Crisis Management : 1. Expert Consensus or Classical Empiricism; 2. Analytic Modeling or Classical Rationalism; 3. Multiple Models or Kantian Rationalism; 4. Dialectics or Hegelianism; and 5. Pragmatism. In The Unbounded Mind: Breaking the Chains of Traditional Business Thinking[i], Harold Linstone and I gave an extensive treatment of each. They represent distinctive ways of conducting Inquiry. In essence, they are unique Inquiring Systems or ISs for short. 1. Expert Consensus or Classical Empiricism In this IS, Reliable Knowledge, and thereby Truth itself, is the product of the "Tight Agreement between a group of Reputable Experts based on the Hard Facts with regard to a Problematic Situation." Based on their extensive training, and thus using the best available methods of observation, the Experts determine the Pertinent Facts pertaining to an important issue. The tighter the agreement between their independent determinations of the Facts, the more that it represents the Truth of a Situation. Thus, based on their rigorous observations and scientific studies,… Read full this story
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